鳶尾科 Iridaceae

三月下旬以來,與鳶尾結緣。

先在皇后像廣場一花圃邂逅。第一刻,被白、紫、黃神奇輕紗的構圖勾引,隨之那待熟綠色欖核般的蒴果惹我莞爾。上網翻查一輪,不太肯定花種,只覺得跟烏葉鳶尾有點相似。

跟着,在香港公園的水池遇著紫、黃兩色的鳶尾,綽約如水仙子。紫色的叫青龍鳶尾或藍花大鳶尾,是水生的多年生常綠草本植物,模樣像梵谷的《鳶尾花》,縱然畫中的花生於泥土上。

四月初,兵頭花園滿園春色。沿地除了嬌麗欣榮的酢漿草外,還有奪目的巴西鳶尾。經典的白紫組合,加上青棕搭合的斑紋,有種森巴的韻律。

中山公園前門右面草圃綠叢鬧著紅和黃,兩種鳶尾科的花朵盛開。有紅瓣黃斑黃蕊的射干 (blackberrylily rhizome) 和乳黄花瓣橙點至焦紅斑的雙色非洲鳶尾。

鳶尾是個大科,屬天門冬目。我們的劍蘭,學名唐菖蒲,以及代表端午節氣的菖蒲花,都是這科菖蒲屬的花種。

鳶尾的形態有很多特色。《維基》說:鳶尾是多年生草本;葉劍形或線形,基部鞘狀;兩性花,由一鞘狀苞內抽出,形似蝴蝶,花被呈花瓣狀,6裂,排成2列,有白、紅、黃、藍、紫等顏色,並常有美麗的斑點或斑紋;雄蕊3枚,子房下位,3室,中軸胎座,花柱1個,柱頭3個,有時擴大而呈花瓣狀或分裂;果實為蒴果。

 

this spring i came across a number of beautiful flowers from theiris family (iridaceae) before knowing their identities. it opens my world after starting to research on iris – the variety of the family and species and how it present itself in the leaves, flower and fruit.

iris has a beautiful story behind its name. iris is the goddess of rainbow in greek myth. wiki says: iris is the personification of the rainbow and messenger of the gods. she is also known as one of the goddesses of the sea and the sky. iris links the gods to humanity. she travels with the speed of wind from one end of the world to the other and into the depths of the sea and the underworld.

iris has some intriguing features. pardon me from quoting directly from wiki but do read on:

~ the iridaceae the perianth is formed of two whorls of three tepals, all similar in structure, shape, and often color. the characters that differentiate iridaceae, however, are its three stamen and an inferior ovary.

~ members of iridaceae are herbs or, in a few cases shrubs. they are almost all perennial that may be either evergreen or seasonal.

~ almost all the flower parts are in threes, starting with two equal whorls of three usually large and showy petal-like tepals, distinct or fused in a tube. there are three stamens (rarely two), and their filaments are often partly to completely fused. anthers have two pollen sacs opening toward the outside, or from their side, and usually along their length. the ovary is located below the tepals (except in isophysis) with axile (rarely parietal) placentation in three locules. there is a single style branching into three at the top. iridaceae do not present unisexual flowers, and all flowers have both a style and stamen.

~ sword-like leaves parallel to the stem and with normally undifferentiated sides are another distinctive feature.

~ the fruit is a dry capsule, usually splitting along three sides spontaneously at maturity.

鳶尾科iridaceae – 被子植物門 magnoliophyta division| 單子葉植物綱 liliopsida class | 天門冬目 asparagales order

 巴西鳶尾 walking iris (neomarica) – it is called walking iris because the flowering stalks take root after bending over and making contact with the ground. thus, the iris appears to “walk” as it fills the garden with graceful foliage and flowers. the walking iris is also called the apostle plant from the belief that a neomarica will not bloom until the plant has 12 leaves. (source: planting flower bulbs)     原產于墨西哥至巴西一帶,花期約春至夏季。花從花莖頂端鞘狀苞片內開出,花有6瓣,3瓣外翻的白色苞片,基部有紅褐色斑塊,另3瓣直立內卷,為藍紫色並有白色線條。花通常上午開放,至下午3~4點就開始內卷枯萎了,但花鞘內的花開完後,會長出小苗,小苗越長越大最後降至土表,發根成苗,而小苗隔年就有開花能力。(資料來源:柴娃娃植物網

 (雙色野鳶尾) 雙色非洲鳶尾 african iris (dietes bicolor) – with its unusual flowers, attractive shape and ease of cultivation, the african iris is a versatile garden plant. this african native grows from rhizomes that produce clumps of slender, arching leaves with flat, creamy-white flowers and black markings lasting only one day. although its flowers are short lived, they are numerous; with each 2- to 4-foot-tall stalk producing a mass of buds that bloom continuously from  (source: planting flower bulbs)   原產南非,地下部有根莖。革質劍形葉片細長,具明顯的中肋。春夏季開花,花莖細長,高度可達1公尺。花瓣奶油色至黃色,基部有巧克力色斑紋。花朵僅一天壽命,但是花開花謝不斷,能延續長久的觀賞期。(資料來源:台灣大百科全書

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

Blog at WordPress.com.

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: