楮實-構樹的果子 paper mulberry

構樹給我的感覺很親近。因為四處都見到他們的蹤跡,如阿米巴多變的葉片形狀,也因為他們的多用途:葉可造宣紙可飼鹿。初始還以為他們是灌木或草本的矮小品種,查查資料,原來可長高到十米到十九米,是落葉喬木。

paper mulberry produces very cute fruit, strawberry-like with soft spikes. the plant is from the moraceae family.

it is real easy to recognize this plant, when at fruiting season of course; but also at off-fruit season because of its amoeba-shaped leaves. their flowers are highly recognizable too. each tree is single sex. the male (staminate) flowers are produced in an oblong inflorescence, and the female (pistillate) flowers in a globular.

 

這陣子構樹開始結果。構樹又稱楮桑。古籍和醫書稱其果實為楮實。楮實外貌醒目吸引,聚掛于葉底,圓滾滾的由澀青熟成紅茸茸的。果子是雀鳥的磁石,麻雀、紅耳鵯都聚跳啄食于枝頭間。

楮實對人也是寶。漢代百科全書《別錄》:其性味甘、寒;主治滋腎、清肝、明目。治虛勞、目昏、目翳、水氣浮腫。

構樹 paper mulberry (broussonetia papyrifera) – kingdom: plantae 植物界 | (unranked): angiosperms | (unranked): eudicots | (unranked): rosids | 雙子葉植物綱 dicotyledon | 被子植物門 angiosperm | order: rosales 薔薇目 或 蕁麻目 | family: moraceae/tribe: moreae桑科 | genus: broussonetia構樹屬 | species: b. papyrifera種:構樹

參考 reference:

  • 別稱:鈔票樹、鹿仔樹、殼樹、殼木子、楮實子、奶樹、構木、噹噹樹、楮樹、紙木
  • 原產地:台灣、中國南部、日本、馬來、太平洋諸島
  • 果實:多花聚合果、球形,成熟後為橙紅色,為多數瘦果,宿存花被及苞片合成。熟果期在六七月間。《臺灣大百科全書
  • 構樹與血桐常為平地或低海拔區域的先驅植物,因為其生長力旺盛,容易繁殖茁壯,為一些耐陰的次生林植物遮蔭。{{備註:此樹對二氧化硫有較強扺抗能力,但在某些國家被視為侵害品種,因吸水力强,甚至侵佔原生品種的水源。}}
  • 核果聚合成聚花果,果肉紅色,內有一種子。
  • 果實味道香甜好吃,有點類似草莓,然而不能到市場上出賣,因為太脆、易碎。《維基百科》
  • the bark is composed of very strong fibres, and can be used for making high-quality paper.
  • the tender leaves and twigs can be used to feed deer, and the tree is sometimes nicknamed the “deer’s tree”.
  • paper mulberry chokes out native flora because of its very high consumption of water, which leaves less water to sustain the native flora. the roots of the tree are aggressive enough to break cinder blocks and cause problems to drainage pipes. (source: wikipedia)
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