百香果、龍珠果 passion fruit & stinky passion fruit

兩種果均同科同屬西番蓮,十一月以來在不同地方遇到她們正值花果期。看她們的花,何等魔幻,讓我聯想到白雪公主等童話人物的造型。

these two types of fruit are close relatives, under the same passifloraceae family and passiflora genus. their drama-looking flowers are fascinating. happen that since november i encounter the two plants at few different places flowering and fruiting around the city. felt the urge to understand more about these plants.

flower - passion fruit 百香果花
flower – passion fruit 百香果花

 

flower - stinky passion fruit 龍珠果花
flower – stinky passion fruit 龍珠果花

在此引用台灣網站《認識植物》(莊溪製作)對西番蓮科植物的特徵介紹,先來立體地理解兩種植物的共通點:

  1. 草本或藤本,具捲鬚。
  2. 單葉,互生,具裂片或掌裂。
  3. 花兩性或單性,大多具小苞片,單生或成總狀或繖房狀;副花冠多變,常具鮮明顏色;萼片3-5,稀缺;花瓣5;雄蕊5;柱頭3-5,頭狀。
  4. 漿果或3-5瓣裂的蒴果。

其中「副花冠」,是我鮮接觸的用詞,不過馬上明白。西番蓮科花朵的層次就是由正副花冠所造就,當然還有苞片。

they are definitely foreign species to hong kong. i never heard about passion fruit when i was a kid. indeed, both plants are native to mainly south america. to understand first about this botanic family, quoting from universallium

Passifloraceae – Many members of the family climb by means of tendrils borne in the leaf axil, though others are erect trees or shrubs. The leaves are often spirally arranged along the stem and are stipulate. Other characteristics include the presence of radially symmetrical male, female, or bisexual flowers with three to five sepals, petals, and stamens. The flowers usually have a one-chambered ovary composed of three to five carpels (ovule-bearing segments), with numerous ovules attached to the inner ovary walls. The stamens are below the ovary, and both are usually borne on the end of a stalk called an androgynophore. Sometimes only the ovary is carried on the stalk. Nearly all species have seeds that bear a fleshy appendage called an aril. In the passion-flower family there often are one or more whorls of tendril-like structures, called the corona, in the flower. The fruits are capsules or berries.

passion fruit 百香果
passion fruit 百香果

 

stinky passion fruit 龍珠果
stinky passion fruit 龍珠果

再來找不同。很明顯,無毛和有毛。百香果/熱情果無論葉和果都很光滑,體型也較大。龍珠果又稱毛西番蓮,渾身不是膽而是毛。

小時候未有聽聞熱情果和龍珠果。兩者原生南美,後者也見於美國。後來開始在些進口製成食品中聽聞,然後到五到十年內,本地自家農地很多都有種植熱情果。全球化的親身體驗。

轉頭說說植物的命名。是否因為花朵的外貌濃艷,充滿激情,故云熱情果?其實果的名字來自其植物西班牙/拉丁文 passioflos,英文直譯為 passion flower,本意有受難花的意思,取材花蕊仿近十字架,而紫或紅的花斑可聯想至基督的淌血。 不過以英文的詞解熱情也是理所當然的。此外,西番蓮花在台灣、日本也有時鐘花的稱號,又是另一貼切的命名。從植物名字閱讀不同文化的異與同,又是賞自然額外的知識增長。

now that we know the common features of the two. let’s spot the differences.

stinky passion fruit is clearly more hairy and come in smaller size. its fruit is edible and so is passion fruit. but obviously the latter is more widely commercially cultivated across tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. in fact many independent farms i visited in this city are commonly planting passion fruit. stinky fruit’s stems, petioles, and leaves are covered with tiny trichomes and its bracts are feathery. its leaves emit an unpleasant odour when crushed, thus the name. meanwhile passion fruit is much more smooth and waxy looking, obviously in the fruit as well as in the leaves. passion fruit leaves are alternate and deeply 3-lobed when mature.

百香果 / 熱情果 passion fruit (passiflora edulis) – kingdom: plantae 植物界 | (unranked): angiosperms | (unranked): eudicots | (unranked): rosids | order: malpighiales 金虎尾目 | family: passifloraceae 西番蓮科 | genus: passiflora 西番蓮屬 | species: p.edulis 百香果 / 熱情果

龍珠果 / 毛西番蓮 stinky passion fruit (passiflora foetida) – kingdom: plantae 植物界 | (unranked): angiosperms | (unranked): eudicots | (unranked): rosids | order: malpighiales 金虎尾目 | family: passifloraceae 西番蓮科 | genus: passiflora 西番蓮屬 | species: p. foetida 龍珠果 / 毛西番蓮

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